Abrasion: The wear and rubbing of the surface of a fabric.
Aramid: A family of heat and flame-resistant fibers used in materials for bulletproof vests and radial tires.
Areal Weight: The weight of a fiber reinforcement per unit area (length x width ) of a tape or fabric.
Calendering: A mechanical finishing process where fabric is passed between heated rolls under pressure in order to produce special effects such as a glaze, polish, moiré, or embossed surface.
Conex®: Registered trademark of Teijin. A member of the meta-aramid fiber family that is both flame retardant and resistant to high temperatures.
Contamination: Undesirable material that causes poor wetting of chemical treatments such as adhesives or coatings.
Creep: A continuous, permanent elongation under a sustained load that results in a change in fabric shape.
Denier: The weight in grams of 9000 meters of a fiber filament. The lower the denier number, the finer the yarn. Denier is used in connection with most most man-made fibers.
Extraction: The process of removing impurities from a substrate with a vacuum.
Kevlar®: DuPont's trademark para-aramid fiber. Kevlar® is lighter and stronger than steel but loses its desirable properties when exposed to the sun for extended periods of time.
Leno Mesh: A weave where warp yarns are arranged in pairs with one twisted around the other between picks of filling yarn. This weave adds firmness and strength to an open-weave fabric and prevents slippage of yarns.
Monofilament: A single filament of a manufactured fiber, usually in a denier higher than 14. Monofilaments are usually spun one at a time.
Multifilament: A yarn consisting of many continuous filaments or strands.
Nomex®: Registered DuPont trademark for a flame retardant meta-aramid fiber marketed and first discovered in the 1970s. Nomex® is primarily used in the manufacture of flame-resistant clothing.
Polyester: A man-made fiber second only to cotton in global usage. Polyester has high strength, excellent resiliency, and good resistance to abrasion. Its low absorbency allows the fiber to dry rapidly.
Polypropylene: Any of various thermoplastic resins that are polymers of propylene. They are hard and tough and are used to make molded articles and fibers.
Roll Goods: Fabric that is rolled up onto a core after is has been woven.
Scouring: The washing of fabric to remove impurities before further processing.
Scrim: A lightweight, open-weave fabric used as a base fabric for the production of coated or laminated fabrics.
Spectra®: Registered trademark for UHMPE (Ultra High Molecular Polyethylene) from Honeywell.
Spun Yarn: A yarn constructed from a group of short staple fibers that have been cut from longer continuous-filament fibers and are then twisted together to form a single yarn.
Substrate: A fabric to which coatings or other fabrics are applied.
Teflon®: Registered trademark for Polytetrafluoro-ethylene (PTFE) fiber produced by Toray.
Tensile Strength: Refers to the amount of load a fiber will withstand before it breaks.
Twaron®: Registered trademark for para-aramid fiber produced by Teijin Aramid that has high impact resistance (five times stronger than steel), high tenacity, and excellent energy absorption properties.
Vectran®: Registered trademark for liquid crystal polymer fiber produced by Kuraray. Noted for its thermal stability at high temperatures, high strength and modulus, and good chemical stability. Vectran® is moisture resistant and is generally stable in hostile environments.
Warp: Lengthwise yarns in a fabric that are attached to and run parallel with the length of the loom and the woven fabric. Weft yarn is woven back and forth across the warp yarns.
Weaving: The method or process of forming a fabric by interlacing at right angles two or more sets of yarn or other material.
DuPont™, Kevlar® and Nomex® are trademarks or registered trademarks of E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company.
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